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The human genome project and other organisms' sequencing studies have created an unparalleled amount of biological data. The ever-evolving science of bioinformatics is in charge of meeting the enormous need for data analysis and interpretation.
Mass spectrometry is an important method of chemical analysis. Mass spectrometry has a wide range of applications in chemistry and pharmaceutics. Drug analysis and Mass Spectrometry development are more important in the pharmaceutical industry. The molecular mass of a molecule is critical in determining its character. Mass spectrometry plays a significant part in cancer treatment. SimGlycan is a software tool for evaluating mass spectrometry data.
Mass spectrometry is an analytical technique used to quantify material or identify unknown materials. the process involves conversion of sample into gaseous form which are then differentiated by their mass to charge ratio (m/ z). ions are separated on the availability and abundance in the mass spectrum. Mass spectrum shows the plot of ion abundance versus charge – to- mass ratio. Ion give the information of the structure and nature of the prime molecule of the sample.
In biology, chemistry, and physics, mass spectrometry is a strong analytical technique with a variety of applications. It has applications in disease characterization and biomarker investigations, examination of ionic-molecular interactions, determination of the abundance of isotopes in nature and in atomic reactions, determination of the atomic masses of stable and radioactive isotopes, and analysis of glycans, lipids, proteins and peptides, oligonucleotides, organic chemistry, polymer chemistry, structure evaluation.
Spectroscopy is the study of how matter interacts with electromagnetic radiation. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, infrared absorption spectroscopy, ultraviolet and visible absorption spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy are all examples of spectroscopy. Sensitivity and selectivity are used in astronomy through spectroscopy in biomedical sciences.
Chromatography technique of separating the chemical substances into its individual components. Various type of chromatography is there Column chromatography, Ion-exchange chromatography, Affinity chromatography, Paper chromatography, Thin-layer chromatography, Gas chromatography. In Chemical industry chromatography is an important technique has lot of application. Chromatography has lot of application in food industry, Forensic Science, Molecular Biology Studies, Polymer Synthesis, Bioinformatics.
Proteomics is the large-scale study of proteins and proteomes. Proteins are vital parts of functional living organisms, Proteomics refers to the large-scale experimental protein purification and mass spectrometry analysis. Proteomic technologies are used for identification and quantification of overall proteins present content of a cell, tissue or an organism. Mass spectrometry with LC–MS-MS and MALDI-TOF/TOF being widely used equipment is the central among current proteomics. Proteomics is also useful in disease diagnosis, gene function, chromatography, electrophoresis, Quantitative techniques, crystallography, Bioinformatics analysis.
The study of acquiring, processing, and transmitting information about the composition and structure of matter is known as analytical chemistry. Analytical chemistry is the study and use of tools and procedures for separating, identifying, and quantifying materials. Separation, identification, and quantification may be used alone or in combination with other methods in practise. Separation is the process of isolating analytes. Quantitative Analysis determines the numerical amount or concentration, whereas qualitative analysis identifies analytes. Classical wet chemical procedures and current instrumental methods make up analytical chemistry. Separations such as precipitation, extraction, and distillation are used in traditional qualitative procedures. Color, odder, melting point, boiling point, radioactivity, and reactivity can all be used to identify a substance. Quantitative analysis that uses mass or volume changes to quantify amount is known as traditional quantitative analysis.
Peptide/protein capillary electrophoresis analysis. Capillary is a tiny tube that is placed between two buffer reservoirs and separated using an electric field. Electrophoretic mobility and electro osmosis are used to separate the samples. It is used in micro preparative techniques, haemoglobin electrophoresis, DNA sequencing, polymorphism analysis, and forensic applications for purity and structural confirmation. CE-MS combines the benefits of both CE and MS in a single study to deliver high separation efficiency and molecular mass information
A Mass Spectrometer produces ions from the sample under inquiry, separates them based on their mass-to-charge ratio (m/z), and then records the relative abundance of each ion type. The instrument is made up of three main parts. Analyzer, Detector System, and Ion Source The operations should always be carried out by a mass spectrometer.
In the ionisation source, generate ions from the sample. In the mass analyzer, separate these ions according to their mass-to-charge ratio. Fragment the selected ions and analyse the fragments in a second analyser at the end. Using the detector that converts ions into electrical signals, detect the ions emerging from the last analyzer and measure their abundance. Process the detector signals that are sent to the computer and use feedback to control the instrument
In the pharmaceutical sector, mass spectrometry is a valuable tool. The pharmaceutical industry discovers drugs, develops them, and manufactures them for use as medications. The method of drug analysis is mass spectrometry. We check the drug's potency by analysing the procedure. Mass spectrometry has a wide range of applications in drug metabolism, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics, as well as preclinical and clinical research.
The mass spectrometry (MS) procedure applied to the studies of biological samples and helps in identifying various metabolite. The metabolites which are available in biological examples and the comparison studies between different samples help in the construction of certain biochemical patterns. mass spectrometry continued to develop into a powerful multi-dimensional Technology for the use in an analytical and bioanalytical technique of nucleic acids, amino acids, peptides, proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and etcetera and in categorizing the field of genomics, proteomics, metabolomics, lipidomic
Identification of unknown peaks in gas chromatography helps in understanding the unexpected allergic process and how genotypes relate to phenotypes mass spectrometer that permits high mass accuracy, high resolution, and high sensitivity analyte detection.
Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) is a technique in mass spectrometry used to visualize the spatial distribution of molecules, as biomarkers, metabolites, peptides or proteins by their molecular masses. Although traditional methodologies like radiochemistry and immunohistochemistry have the same goal as Mass Spectrometry Imaging. The operation principle depends on the spatial information. The two techniques used in MSI are: microprobe and microscope
Mass spectrometry follows various type of ionization methods. The important method that the chemist use is electron impact (EI) and Fast Atom Bombardment (FAB). These techniques are not utilized much with present day mass spectrometry apart from EI for ecological work utilizing Gas chromatography mass spectrometry. Electrospray ionization (ESI) is the ionization method that has turned into the most well-known ionization procedure. The electrospray is made by creating a high voltage on a stream of fluid at environmental weight, some of the time this is helped by a simultaneous stream of gas.
The hyphenated strategy helps in joining a separation technique and an on-line spectroscopic detection technology. hyphenated system had applications in the investigation of biomaterials, particularly natural product. recent advances improvement in the uses of different hyphenated technique, pre-isolation examinations of crude sample or portion from different characteristic sources, separation and on-line recognition of normal items, chemotaxonomic ponders, quality of herbal product and study of metabolomics.
Hyphenated techniques is of both multidimensional separation systems (HPLC-GC) and multidimensional switching systems (FID-MS). Interfaces of various strategies (GC-FTIR) are all the time considered as hyphenation named yet are not really multidimensional. In multidimensional chromatography, the distribution consistent is different in each part, and in this way the analyte will behave differently. In this manner, the detachment in a one-dimensional framework will be expanded in extent to the quantity of chromatographic dimension.
Organic Chemistry is a brunch of chemistry related with structure properties, and reactions of organic compound and materials. Mass Spectrometry is use of analysis molecular mass of higher energy organic compound. Mass Spectrometry is use to determine the stature of natural product, organic compound, which is helpful in chemical reaction.
Environmental Analysis is referring the part of chemistry which is related with environment. The process examines all the internal or external components, which has an influence on the performance of the organization. The steps involved in environmental analysis identifying, Scanning, Analyzing, Forecasting. Mass Spectrometry is a technical platform for analysis of environmental chemicals. It helps in several ways Protect Human Health by Detecting Environmental Contaminants, Persistent Organic Pollutants, Emerging Contaminants, From Emerging to Emerged.
Protein Mass Spectrometry is related with identification of protein. There are two method of ionization of electrospray ionization and matrix assistant laser desorption. Protein synthesis is important in human life. Protein molecule are work as catalyze in biochemical reactions. Hormones are a kind of protein that make connection between cell to cell and regulated the body function. Mass Spectrometry help to protein synthesis. That has lot of function in human body
Mass Spectrometry in Forensic Analysis is a technology provides a powerful tool for Forensic studies. For forensic researchers investigating their samples for unknown compounds, drug metabolites, chemicals or hazards, novel psychoactive substances that have never been previously detected or characterized. The role of Mass Spectroscopy in forensic science may be characterized as either molecular or elemental analysis. comparatively little volatile nonionic molecules found in a very sort of forensic samples may be analyzed with electron and chemical ionization of single-stage mass analyzers that give relative molecular mass and structural data. Non-polar and polar molecules and their metabolites habitually found in biological matrices along with alternative analytes of forensic interest may be determined by using Electrospray.
Mass Spectrometry in medicine is the most important area to study for the development of medicines. Mass Spectrometry is an analytic technique widely used many laboratories for the development of laboratory medicine. Various types of Mass Spectrometers are used in order to get improvements in assay performance that is occurring rapidly in areas such as toxicology, endocrinology, and biochemical genetics. Mass Spectrometry is a diagnostic system with high specificity and developing vicinity in research facility prescription. Different sorts of Mass Spectrometers are being utilized as a part of an expanding number of clinical research facilities all around the globe. Mass Spectrometry has contributed altogether to the development of restorative science in early decades, especially in connection to medication advancement, in-vitro diagnostics, dietary and natural drug.
Pharmacokinetics is branch of pharmacology which studies how an organism can effect a drug. it is to determine the fate of substances administer to living organism. The substance includes any chemical xenobiotic, pharmaceutical drugs, pesticides, food additives, cosmetics. It has various compartments and the model is LADME.
Inorganic chemistry is the study of the synthesis, reactions, structures and properties of compounds of the elements. Inorganic chemistry encompasses the compounds - both molecular and extended solids - of everything else in the periodic table, and overlaps with organic chemistry in the area of organometallic chemistry, in which metals are bonded to carbon-containing ligands and molecules. Inorganic chemistry is fundamental to many practical technologies including catalysis and materials (structural, electronic, magnetic etc.), energy conversion and storage, and electronics. Inorganic compounds are also found in biological systems where they are essential to life processes.
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